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Companion Planting

Part of "Growing Food"


Plants exert influence over each other in many ways. For example, bush beans do well when planted with cucumbers. Celery grows wells when planted near tomatoes, leeks. Radishes grown with lettuce in summer are said to be very juicy. Onions help cabbages by warding off pests such as the the common cabbageworms.  

Other planting pairs are negative, as in the case of a root exudant that inhibits the growth or flavor of another plants. Onions and peas, for example should not be planted near each other.


Companion plants interact with each other by releasing chemical compounds from their roots, or scents from their leaves and flowers, that can either encourage or discourage growth of another nearby plant. Some companion plants attract beneficial insects and microorganisms that can help nearby plants.

While companion planting is being researched, much of the knowledge is based on farmer's observations through the decades.


This Course segment links you to companion planting guides, explanations of key principles and a list of the best flowering plants to attract pollinators and repel pests.

Begin this Course segment with the link to a Companion Planting Guide and work your way through the other Useful Links.

Useful Links:
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An article, charts and many additional links to companion plants that enhance growth and repel insects. A great resource from

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Companion planting has been practiced by generations of farmers around the world. Learn about the "three sisters" crops and how to plant them together.

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Best Flowers for the Vegetable Garden

Flowers play a role in attracting pollinators to your garden. Learn about some of the most effective ones that can increase your yields.

> Back to Course 4: Growing Food

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